Dark spots appearing on the skin, spoil the appearance and add years.
What are age spots?
Hyperpigmentation is an uneven distribution of melanin in the skin of the pigment (in fact, it is the color that gives the skin). If you have freckles, you are familiar with this situation: it is so genetically formed that there are clusters of cells in some parts of your skin.
But freckles look cute and are present from childhood, that is, their owners have time to get used to their features. Pigment spots are another matter. They occur suddenly, have a large uneven shape, and require a tonal means for masking, which is not suitable for everyone.
The cause of the spots is a failure, as a result of which a part of the skin cells begins to produce more melanin than before. Hyperpigmentation alone is not harmful. But it is a symptom of some changes in the body. Which, in turn, can be both neutral from the point of view of health, and quite dangerous.
What makes pigment spots appear?
Failure of the skin cells most often occurs for the following reasons 5 possible causes of pigmentation problems.
- Excessive UV exposure. Ultraviolet irritates melanocytes – skin cells responsible for the production of melanin. Normally, this results in an even tan. But if cells are often stimulated with an active sun often and much, some of them “go crazy” and start producing melanin day and night in horse doses.
- Skin injuries, including sunburn. Sunburn is, in fact, a defense mechanism. With the help of melanin, our body is protected from ultraviolet radiation that is deadly for it: this dark pigment creates a kind of barrier around skin cells that disperses dangerous UVB rays. The areas where the skin is damaged, from the point of view of the body, need maximum protection. That is why melanocytes go into the maximum activity mode, and damaged skin (whether you combed your knee or walked in the sun and now your nose peels off) darkens much more vigorously than neighboring areas.
- Hormonal changes. Melanin production is regulated including hormones. Pregnancy, taking birth control pills, some endocrine diseases can change hormonal levels. As a result, age spots appear.
- Age. Over the years, the skin becomes thinner and the melanocyte cells in some parts of it are 5 possible causes of pigmentation problems practically near the surface. If in youth and youth, small doses of melanin produced by them hid under a layer of skin and were invisible, then closer to old age they appear. So there are age spots.
- Acceptance of some drugs. For example, tetracycline antibiotics, retinoids and chemotherapy drugs, Hyperpigmentation.
- Malfunctions of the internal organs. The appearance of age spots is often a distress signal from the liver of the Alcohol-Related Liver Disease, gallbladder, kidney and other organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
How to start the treatment of age spots?
What doctors do not recommend is self-treatment. It is justified only if you absolutely know exactly where the stain came from. For example, if pigmentation appeared at the site of the burn.
The right decision is to go with your spots to a dermatologist. He will examine your skin, take an interest in lifestyle and medications taken, look in your medical card to check with concomitant diseases. In some cases, you may be asked to do a biopsy to eliminate the risk of developing melanoma.
If pigmentation is associated with internal problems of the body, you must first cure them. Otherwise the spots will appear again and again.
How to get rid of age spots?
But, suppose, with the “inner world” you are doing well, and the spots appeared for reasons that were generally harmless. In this case, you can start the fight with them.
In fact, there are only two ways to get rid of age spots.
Make the skin denser, filled
The goal is to increase the dermal layer above the melanocytes by hiding the pigment. This can be achieved as follows:
- Thoughtful approach to the choice of everyday cosmetics. You need products that provide a powerful moisturizing and nourishing effect.
- To establish a drinking regime so that the body as a whole and the skin in particular receive the necessary amount of fluid.
Remove age spots
This can be done in different ways: from simple (and, unfortunately, not so effective) home to professional. Otherwise you will not win, but only aggravate the pigmentation.
Hence the important recommendation: it is best to start the fight against non-aesthetic stains in the fall. So injured skin is less likely to meet with direct sunlight.
Whitening creams and ointments
Such products contain hydroquinone and retinoic acid – substances that provide the skin with easy peeling and accelerate cell regeneration. Do not buy these drugs yourself. Consult a dermatologist to avoid possible skin irritation.
So-called subcutaneous injections of special bleaching preparations. The same cream, but more effective. In one procedure, you can seriously lighten the pigment spot, but to complete the disposal of it will need several sessions.
Many try to get rid of stains using scrubs. Microdermabrasion is generally the same scrub, but instrumental. With the help of a special nozzle, the beautician “polishes” the skin, removing the top layer damaged by the pigment.
The meaning of the procedure is to apply a reactive composition to the skin, most often on the basis of any acid: glycolic, lactic, tartaric, malic, and so on. This composition allows you to dissolve and remove the surface layer of the skin in which the pigment has settled. In addition, peels stimulate cell renewal. Such procedures can be performed only by a professional cosmetologist!
A laser beam with a specific wavelength selectively acts on pigment-stained cells, without injuring others. Under the action of a laser, melanin is destroyed. This method is considered one of the most effective: if the area of pigmentation is not very large, you can do with one procedure.